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By Carlos Alberto Montaner

A Cuban/Spanish journalist and writer examines the historic and cultural impacts that formed Latin the USA and indicates how they've got made it into the main impoverished, volatile and backward area within the Western world.No one ever observed what occurred in Latin the United States as valid or simply -- together with the descendants of the Conquistadors themselves, says Montaner.Today's patent fiscal failure, political instability and negative medical contribution stem drastically from this distinctive heritage. Spaniards, Creoles, Indians and Blacks all have their very own aggrieved views, and all are in part justified.Montaner attracts at the cultural and ancient currents that made up Spain on the time of the Conquest, together with the Gothic, Moorish, Christian and Jewish components; and explores how Spain tackled the problem of co-opting, instead of exterminating, the local peoples. A extra humane strategy than that undertaken in North the US, it still laid the rules for the enduring clash and confusion that also make Latin the United States unruly this present day.

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It seems logical that if Peter had decided to pass his supernatural powers on to a successor, he would have transferred them directly to Linus and not Clement. In any event, among these gifts were the powers to validate rulers and organize the Church by his standards. The pope obeyed no one and could not be judged by his subjects. Only God could hold him accountable. The institution he led was vertical, and power descended from a higher source. The pope wielded it, but God granted it. God was the pantocrat, the omnipotent.

Up until this point, Church endorsement had given Spain moral and legal validation. But, where did the Church get its legitimacy to authorize powers, dispense favors, name princes, and decide the destiny of millions of human beings in America who had never heard of it, or Christ, or Rome? Spain’s and Portugal’s “rights” to the New World were established by several papal bulls, dispensed by Pope Alexander VI and reinforced by the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal. The pope’s gracious donation, however, was questioned immediately and rejected summarily by other nations and was not even understood by the wronged natives of the New World.

In its Latin origin the word’s meaning expresses this concept: “servant” comes from servus, the common root of servere, to save. (At least, so explains University of Minnesota history professor William D. ) Under Roman rule, slavery in Spain multiplied exponentially. Survivors from Iberian towns who resisted the advancing legions were sold as slaves and remained permanently in this condition, except for those able to buy their own manumission with the savings of the peculium, personal money accumulated from extra work done outside the master’s estate.

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