By Albert I. King (auth.), Jorge A. C. Ambrósio, Manuel F. O. Seabra Pereira, Fernando Pina da Silva (eds.)
A systematic remedy of present crashworthiness perform within the automobile, railroad and plane industries. Structural, external and inside layout, occupant biomechanics, seat and reticence platforms are handled, taking account of statistical information, present laws and state of the art layout instrument features. Occupant kinematics and biomechanics are reviewed, resulting in a simple realizing of human tolerance to affect and of using anthropometric attempt dummies and mathematical modelling ideas. kinds of restraining platforms are defined when it comes to impression biomechanics. the fabric and structural behaviour of auto parts is mentioned when it comes to crash checking out. numerous familiar ideas for simulating occupants and buildings are offered, specifically using multibody dynamics, finite point tools and simplified macro-elements, within the context of layout instruments of accelerating complexity, that are used to version either autos and occupants.
Audience: a very good reference for researchers, engineers, scholars and all different execs desirous about crashworthiness work.
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Additional resources for Crashworthiness of Transportation Systems: Structural Impact and Occupant Protection
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As compression increases, the risk of rib fracture increases. In both cases, the mechanism of injury is tissue deformation. The abdomen is more vulnerable to injury than the chest, because there is little bony structure below the ribcage to protect internal organs in front and lateral impact. Blunt impact of the upper abdomen can compress and injure solid organs, such as the liver and kidneys, before significant whole-body motion or acceleration occurs. In the liver, compression increases the intrahepatic pressure and generates tensile or shear strains.
Thoracolumbar Spine Although injuries to the bony portion of the thoracolumbar spine are rare in automotive crashes, paraplegia can result if the spinal cord is involved and complaints of low back pain are a common claim. Impact spinal biomechanics attempts to explain the various injury mechanisms and provides data on human response and tolerance. Surrogates in the form of a dummy spine or a computer model are developed based on the results of these biomechanical studies. Historically, the study of thoracolumbar spinal injuries were motivated by the pilot ejection problem.