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By Karin Friedrich, Barbara Pendzich

This quantity seeks to deal with the doubts harboured via the West concerning the skill of East critical eu states to construct glossy democracies and tolerant societies after the growth of the eu Union eastwards. The culture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is thereby usually neglected in favour of the nationalist romanticism and xenophobia of the 19th and early 20th century, which arose from the explicit context of the walls of 1772-95. but citizenship in a multinational context used to be a crucial subject matter of the political debate in early smooth Poland-Lithuania. for plenty of modern non secular and nationwide conflicts, this Commonwealth can't be a right away version for imitation, yet may well function a resource of notion a result of artistic suggestions and compromises it negotiated whereas integrating many religions and ethnicities. participants are James B. Collins, Karin Friedrich, Gershon David Hundert, Joanna Kostylo, Krzysztof Lazarski, Allan I. Macinnes, Barbara M. Pendzich, Felicia Roşu, Barbara Skinner, and Artūras Vasiliauskas.

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Extra resources for Citizenship and Identity in a Multinational Commonwealth: Poland-lithuania in Context, 1550-1772 (Studies in Central European Histories)

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Soon enough, there were proposals that attempted to make the Polish justice system more appropriate to the pressing needs of the time by separating the legislative process from the judicial one. At the Sejm that was held in the winter of 1556–1557 under Zygmunt August, two proposals for a common tribunal functioning independently from the Sejm were advanced, one by the Senate, the other by the deputies. The former was to be temporary and limited to undecided cases; the latter was to be permanent and to extend its jurisdiction over cities.

Wirkungen des religiösen Wandels im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert in Staat, Gesellschaft und Kultur (Stuttgart, 1999), 139–160, here 146. 6 In consequence, Goślicki singled out one form of government as the most successful: that which rewarded through offices and honours only the best—the optimates—who were qualified by virtue, freedom, wisdom and property to set an example of citizenship. Among the constitutions of European commonwealths, the Polish one, which not only empowered its citizens to elect their monarch but also bound him by oath to the constitution, adopted these principles of citizenship in their most radical form.

Balzer estimates that the first project of legal reform was most likely proposed at the 1543 Sejm, during the reign of king Zygmunt I. According to Balzer, the main authors of the reform projects that were circulated in the decades preceding the creation of the tribunal were Stanisław Orzechowski and Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski. See Oswald Balzer, Geneza Trybunału Koronnego: Studyum z dziejów sAdownictwa polskiego XVI wieku ( Warsaw, 1886), 157–167. See also Stanisław Kutrzeba, “La Réforme Judiciaire en Pologne à l’époque d’Etienne monarch, citizens, and the law under stefan batory 21 early failures, the most politically active members of the nobility kept pressing for judicial reform throughout the 1550s, 1560s, and 1570s, regardless of the constant disagreements that arose between them, and the monarchs’ reluctance to allow encroachments on royal authority.

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