By Mannque Rho
This is often the sequel to the 1st quantity, to regard in a single powerful box concept framework the physics of strongly interacting topic less than severe stipulations. this can be very important for realizing the extreme temperature phenomena happening in relativistic heavy ion collisions and within the early Universe, in addition to the high-density topic anticipated to be found in compact stars. The underlying thesis is that what governs hadronic homes in a warmth bathtub and/or a dense medium is hidden neighborhood symmetry which emerges from chiral dynamics of sunshine quark structures and from the duality among QCD in 4D and bulk gravity in 5D as in AdS/QCD. particular recognition is paid to sizzling subject proper for relativistic heavy ion techniques and to dense subject proper for compact stars which are both reliable or at the breaking point into black holes.
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Extra info for Chiral Nuclear Dynamics II: From Quarks to Nuclei to Compact Stars (2008)(2nd)(en)(352s)
This is a notion that is exploited later and throughout this volume in (emergent) hidden gauge symmetries that will play the pivotal role in describing hadron phenomena under extreme conditions. Now in order to quantize the theory, we have to ﬁx the gauge. To do this we pick a θ by a general gauge condition Φ(θ) = 0. 12) Then following the standard text-book (Faddeev-Popov) method, we write Z[V, A] = [dχ][dχ][dθ]δ(Φ[θ])|det( ¯ δΦ i )|e δθ d2 xL . 5) which describes everything in terms of fermions.
The other eﬀect is that the boundary condition for the U (1)A boson, η , induces a quantum anomaly that makes the color leak out of the bag. There is no colored ﬁeld outside of the bag to absorb this leaking color in contrast to the pion ﬁeld which can absorb the baryon charge. To assure the conservation of the color, one must therefore impose a boundary condition – which breaks color gauge invariance – to absorb the leaking color. Thus one has a Lagrangian which breaks color gauge invariance at the classical level but when quantized, the color gets restored.
47), is neither unique nor gauge invariant although the sum is without ambiguity. This separation, however, is found to lead to a natural partition of the contributions in the framework of the bag description for the conﬁnement mechanism that is used here. We now discuss individual contributions from each term, shown in Fig. 2. 10 In what follows, we drop prime in η . 5 R(fm) Fig. 2 Various contributions to the ﬂavor singlet axial current of the proton as a function of bag radius R and comparison with the experiment: (a) quark plus η (or “matter”) contribution (a0BQ + a0η ), (b) the contribution of the static gluons due to quark source (a0G,stat ), (c) the gluon Casimir contribution (a0G,vac ), and (d) their sum (a0total).