By Wolfgang D. Schindler, Peter J. Hauser
With approximately twenty forms of chemical finishes and a number of other thousand completing brokers, chemical completing execs require a pretty good foundation of cloth chemical wisdom and technical realizing, in addition to a few useful event. Chemical completing of Textiles fulfills this desire by way of describing all the very important forms of chemical finishers and emphasizing the basics instead of particular recipe and process proposals. It covers the benefits and drawbacks, software stipulations, compatibility and combinability, trying out tools, and functional counsel of each very important form of chemical end. The textual content will pay specific recognition to the interaction among chemical constructions and the consequences of completing items.
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Additional info for Chemical Finishing of Textiles
25 Holzdörfer U D, ‘Hydrophile Weichmacher auf Basis von Silikonen’, Textilveredlung, 2001, 36, 5. 26 Poppenwimmer K and Schmidt J, ‘Ausrüsten von Synthesefaserstoffen – Teil 2’, Textilveredlung, 1999, 34(7/8), 6. 1 Introduction The hand building finish is not only one of the oldest but also one of the most important kind of finishes. Very different natural and synthetic polymers are used for an astonishing variety of hand effects. The main effects of fullness and stiffness enable a very interesting hand design, often in combination with other finishes.
It consists of several different measuring instruments, for example for tensile and shear properties (KES-F1), bending properties (KES-F2), compressibility (KES-F3), surface (KES-F4) and thermal (KES-F7) properties. The measured parameters and the area weight are normalised and correlated to the subjective handle scores. From this correlation, for every hand evaluation a transformation equation is developed, resulting in a primary © 2004 by Woodhead Publishing Ltd Softening finishes 39 hand value between 0 and 10.
Small softener molecules, in addition, penetrate the fibre and provide an internal plasticisation of the fibre forming polymer by reducing of the glass transition temperature Tg. The physical arrangement of the usual softener molecules on the fibre surface is important and shown in Fig. 1. It depends on the ionic nature of the softener molecule and the relative hydrophobicity of the fibre surface. Cationic softeners orient themselves with their positively charged ends toward the partially negatively charged fibre (zeta potential), creating a new surface of hydrophobic carbon chains that provide the characteristic excellent softening and lubricity seen with cationic softeners.