Download By the Sword and the Cross: The Historical Evolution of the by Charles A. Truxillo PDF

By Charles A. Truxillo

A concise evaluate of Spanish the USA throughout the colonial period (1492-1825), this examine makes an attempt a synthesis of Iberian and Latin American old narratives in the context of global heritage. Spanish civilization used to be transferred to the Americas as Spain imposed its medieval Catholic tradition upon the Americas, effectively exchanging the elite cultures of the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas. Iberian tradition grew to become indigenous when it comes to cross-culturalization, and Creole elites came upon independence inevitable as soon as their lifestyle grew to become outlined via American situations.

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Extra resources for By the Sword and the Cross: The Historical Evolution of the Catholic World Monarchy in Spain and the New World, 1492-1825 (Contributions to the Study of World History)

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The Muslims were in no position to exploit the situation created by their opponents' loss of momentum. A much reduced Al-Andalus degenerated once again into warring emirates as Almoravid power collapsed. Unfortunately, cultural brilliance did not compensate for a society in the throes of political devolution. Islamic Spain, on the defensive, clearly lacked a purpose such as that which sustained the old caliphate of Cordoba in the days when competition with the Fatimids and Charlemagne had defined its orientation.

Southern Spain was swept clear of Christian forces. However, the victorious Almoravids were unable to recapture Toledo or restore the situation on the Ebro where Aragon took Saragossa in 1118. Ironically, the taifa emirs soon regretted their invitation to the Almoravids, who appeared more like an army of occupation than rescuers (Lomax 1978). Spain in World History 31 Within a generation of restoring Al-Andalus, the martial qualities of the Almoravids waned as they encamped among the gardens and fleshpots of Moorish Spain.

At Alarcos in 1195, the Almohads mauled a Castilian army, sending shock waves throughout Europe; the response was quick in coming. With the help of Pope Innocent III, a major Crusade was preached and a pan-Hispanic alliance was formed; forces from the whole of Christendom assembled. Only Leon refused to join because of its disputed frontier with neighboring Castile. The Almohads barely had time to savor their recent victory and enjoy the fruits of Al-Andalus. The caliphs ruled from Seville, which they embellished as the new capital of western Islam.

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