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By Ramón Carmona, Alberto Domezain, Manuel García Gallego, José Antonio Hernando, Fernando Rodríguez, Manuel Ruiz-Rejón

Sturgeons are thought of “living fossils”, sharing many morphological and organic positive factors with ancestral fish. additionally, sturgeons are of the maximum curiosity from an fiscal standpoint, not just for the caviar yet for the flesh. even if, the wild populations of nearly all of the species are at severe hazard of extinction worldwide. So, it's pressing to strengthen recommendations for either farming tradition and conservation and restoration in typical habitats.

This publication offers a complete view of the biology and sustainable improvement of sturgeons placing emphasis at the Southern Europe autochthonous species akin to Acipenser nacarii and Acipenser sturio that percentage geographical distribution. different appropriate species (such as Huso huso, A. oxyrhinchus, A. ruthenus, A. stellatus) and components (Germany, Russia, North the US) also are thought of. The contents are organised in 3 sections: Taxonomy and Biogeography (including the morphological and genetic analyses that make clear the taxonomy and phylogeny of sturgeons, thinking about these from Southern Europe), Biology and Aquaculture (where a number of facets of the developmental biology, feeding, and replica are thought of when it comes to the advance of sturgeon farming), and restoration and Conservation (that collates and analyses diversified restoration study activities, the ecology of the rivers for recovery in addition to the issues with regards to the alternate of caviar).

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In addition, it is necessary to match the rate of evolutionary change of the marker to the range of species compared. In this case of closely related species such as those of the same genus Acipenser, the need for a marker with a high rate of sequence change is fundamental. However, this is not easy in the case of sturgeons. In fact, fish genomes, in general, are characterized by lower mutation rates than in other vertebrate genomes. , 1996; Martin, 1999). , 2001a; Krieger and Fuerst, 2002). , 2001) may be responsible for this slow rate.

A. Garrido-Ramos et al. of the genus Scaphirhynchus are found on the Atlantic side of North America. The area comprising the Mediterranean, Black, Caspian and Aral Seas (MediterraneanPonto-Caspian area) is the area with the greatest species diversity. Species of the Mediterranean area are H. huso, A. stellatus, A. sturio and A. naccarii, although this latter is considered endemic to the Adriatic Sea. The species A. nudiventris, A. gueldenstaedtii and A. ruthenus are found in the Black Sea. The Caspian Sea has species such as A.

Naccarii). We were then prompted to test thoroughly for the presence of A. naccarii among preserved museum specimens caught in the past in Spanish and Italian rivers. 1; Fig. , 2004; and the new data presented in this chapter for the first time). After a comprehensive and detailed analysis using several methods of DNA extraction and purification (including the most powerful forensic methods) and using several nuclear repetitive markers in comparison with several mitochondrial markers, we have concluded that the species A.

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