By Heinz Mehlhorn (auth.), Sven Klimpel, Heinz Mehlhorn (eds.)
This publication gathers contributions by way of sixteen overseas authors at the phenomenon “bats,” laying off a few mild on their morphology, the feeding behaviors (insects, end result, blood) of other teams, their power and proven transmissions of brokers of ailments, their endo- and ectoparasites, in addition to numerous myths surrounding their way of life (e.g. vampirism, chupacabras, batman etc.).
Bats were recognized in several cultures for a number of thousand centuries, even if their nocturnal actions have made them mysterious and resulted in many legends and myths, whereas confirmed evidence remained scarce. Even this day, our wisdom of bats continues to be restricted in comparison to different teams within the animal country. additionally, their recognized skill to prevent collisions with hindrances in the course of their nightly flights with assistance from a cosmopolitan and special process utilizing ultrasound waves (which are transmitted and got) is as poorly studied as birds discovering their approach from continent to continent. in recent years, the place globalization transports hundreds of thousands of individuals and items from one finish of the earth to the opposite, there are elevated dangers posed via brokers of illnesses, because of which bats have got expanding cognizance as power vectors. those suppositions are in keeping with their confirmed transmission of viruses similar to rabies.
In committed chapters, the publication addresses the next topics:
• the realm of bats
• The astounding morphology of bats
• Bats as strength reservoir hosts for vector-borne diseases
• Bat endoparasites
• Macroparasites – ectoparasites
• Glimpses into how bats fly
• Blood-licking bats
• Vampirism in drugs and culture
• Chupacabras and “goat milkers”
• Myths on candiru
As such, this publication presents a extensive diversity of knowledge for all non-experts attracted to organic subject matters, but additionally for individuals operating during this box, in addition to physicians and veterinarians who're faced with medical situations, and for academics and scholars drawn to increasing their wisdom of biology and of earlier and current cultures.
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Additional info for Bats (Chiroptera) as Vectors of Diseases and Parasites: Facts and Myths
2011; Goddard and deShazo 2009), their role as vectors is still unclear. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a second group of blood-sucking insects. They are regarded worldwide as the major vectors of vector-borne diseases. Especially, species of the genus Anopheles, which are well known as vectors of malaria, can also impact human and animal health by their ability to transmit arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) as well as filarial parasites such as the elephantiasiscausing Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi (Gillies and Coetzee 1987; Sallum et al.
1941). In a laboratory study by Reagan et al. (1955), the cave bat Myotis lucifugus was successfully infected after intraperitoneal, intradermal, intracerebral and intrarectal injection of the virus, although the bats were not susceptible to the virus after intranasal exposure. The second virus is the Kaeng Khoi virus (KKV), which was first isolated in Thailand in 1969 from the bat species Chaerephon plicata (wrinkle-lipped bat) and Taphozous theobaldi (Theobald’s bat). Both species can be found across the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Phyllostomus discolor may not serve as a host for enzootic VEEV strains, while the circulating virus levels in Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus and Sturnira lilium seemed to be high enough to permit the infection of Culex vectors (Seymour et al. 1978b). 3 Flaviviridae: Flavivirus The family Flaviviridae can be divided into the three genera Pestivirus, Hepacivirus and Flavivirus (Cook and Holmes 2006). The last named contains the largest number of viruses with the potential to cause diseases in bats and humans and may be spread by haematophagous insects.