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By Jack Barrett

Barrett J. Atomic constitution and periodicity (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002)(ISBN 0854046577)

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This means that the ionization of scandium, 4s'3d1, removes one of the 4s electrons, and alters the orbital energies of' the 4s and 3d electrons such that the remaining 4s electron finds greater stability in the 3d level, and with the gain of one unit of exchange energy produces a Sc' ion with the configuration 3d'. r. 4s + 3d in the individual atom). The removal of the electrons alters the 4s-3d energy gap to ensure that there are no instances of 4s orbital occupancy in the ionized species. Irregularities in the configurations of the elements 0 - the second and third transition series, and of the lanthanides and actinides, are described below, and their origins and explanations can be described in terms similar to those used for the first transition series.

1). In polyelectronic atoms the effects of interelectronic repulsion are superimposed upon this trend. 3. 2 Orbital Penetration Effects The reasons for the loss of degeneracy of sets of atomic orbitals with the same value of n are embedded in the radial distribution functions of the orbitals. 1. n =4 - - - -4f :-+ ,-I \\ -... '-4d \'\ , I \ ,, - 4P \ n = 3 -,:---:-3d ,,. -4s , \-*. 2 shows the radial distribution functions for the hydrogen 2s and 2p orbitals, from which it can be seen that the 2s orbital has a considerably larger probability near the nucleus than the 2p orbital.

For any value of n greater than 2, show that there can only be five d orbitals. 3. For any value of n greater than 3, show that there can only be seven f orbitals. 4. Determine the values of r at which there are radial nodes in the 3s atomic orbital. Solve the equation 6 - 2p + '/gp2 = 0 to achieve the result, given that p = 2Zr/a,. Compare them with your graph of the radial distribution function for this orbital. D. 0. fur Clzrniists, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2002. A companion volume in this series.

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