By Professor Goran Therborn, Habibul Khondker
Readers who're bored with the popularized model of globalization touted as a contemporary phenomenon will locate this e-book worthwhile for either its old intensity and its modern importance. facing globalization in either time and area, a crew of sought after sociologists, historians, political scientists, economists and theologians/ethicists from either Asia and Europe talk about globalization when it comes to genuine civilizational encounters and their a number of results. Essays variety from political and monetary advancements to the problems of universalistic international ethics, protecting a large geographical terrain that incorporates China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, South and North Korea, in addition to the eu continent. during this quantity, the reader also will locate concerns in neighborhood improvement with a unique concentrate on gender, and a outstanding contribution at the formation of old empires comparable to the Mongol Empire as an early exemplar of globalization.
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Additional resources for Asia and Europe in Globalization: Continents, Regions and Nations (Social Sciences in Asia)
The smooth curve indicates that the marginal cost of increasing the size of the army (in terms of output forgone) is increasing. The S-shaped curve, in turn, shows the marginal beneﬁt in terms of increased production through the addition of land and labour. This curve ﬁrst rises and falls only after point G has been reached. The two curves intersect three times. To the left of point E it pays to increase army size, since the beneﬁts of this exceed the costs. To the right of this point it does not, since here the cost curve lies above the beneﬁt curve—unless the addition to the army is non-marginal so that point F can be reached.
Thus the total labour force N now must be divided among three instead of between two pursuits: (14) L + G + A = N where L workers are busy directly producing, G work in the bureaucracy and A are extending the frontiers of the Mongol empire. Both the bureaucrats and the army have to be paid by state tax money. The amount of land available is a function of the size of the army and the military technology (m) (including strategic and tactical skills): (15) T = T(A, m) Conquest, however, implies not only that the physical territory is enlarged.
The seminomads, who lived on the fringes of sedentary agricultural societies, shared this constant economic instability. Their lack of accumulated resources gave both types of nomads a periodic incentive not only for increased trade but for military expansion. The nomads were the have-nots of antiquity, always poor in comparison with peoples in more thickly populated farming regions. (Fairbank and Reischauer, 1979:155) The productive base of the steppe was too meagre to allow substantial fortunes to be amassed, and preying on other nomads would yield precisely the same type of goods as those produced by the Mongols themselves.