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By Vero Copner Wynne Edwards

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Visual methods, however, tend on the whole to be favoured wherever possible above all other means of communication; for not only can animals display infinitely varied patterns, but these can be rendered especially conspicuous, and their meaning altered or emphasised, by movements associated with their exhibition. Social integration, as already mentioned, requires the recognition of other members of the group and species; and among animals constantly in 2-2 VISUAL SIGNALS AND PERCEPTION 27 motion each recognition-contact may depend more on the characteristic general visual appearance of the moving object than on any particular mark or pattern.

It seems probable that the locusts are actually performing song-flights, and their dispersion is somewhat akin to territory in birds, as in the case of many other Orthoptera. Male rivalry and fighting have actually been observed in close association with the flights in this species, Dissosteira carolina (Snodgrass, 1925, p. 413) (see also p. 48). Professor Pierce of Harvard, the physicist who undertook important pioneer work in analysing the sounds produced by insects, has the following comment (1948, p.

413) (see also p. 48). Professor Pierce of Harvard, the physicist who undertook important pioneer work in analysing the sounds produced by insects, has the following comment (1948, p. 262): ' These aerial evolutions in [D. carolina'] take place prominently at the height of the mating season, and the flight... is a hovering over a nearly fixed spot .... " I have not been able to determine that there was a female present to admire the male's antics. ' This detached observation by a scientist unhampered by preconceived biological ideas should not pass unnoticed.

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