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By Dwayne Heard

Written as an authoritative consultant to the ideas of instrumental size for the atmospheric scientist, learn pupil or undergraduate, Analytical innovations for Atmospheric dimension specializes in the tools used to make genuine time measurements of atmospheric fuel and aerosol composition.

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Data are sent back to the ground via telemetry, with the balloons eventually bursting and the sonde (usually not recovered) falling back to earth. To lift heavier instruments, a larger balloon is required, as more lift can be generated by a larger volume of the lighter helium. Scientific balloons can be very large (up to 106 m3 ) and are able to lift payloads of up to ∼ 1000 kg to altitudes of 30–45 km. There are severe constraints on the instruments – they must be automatic and capable of withstanding wide ranges of pressures and temperatures.

It is not possible to express particulate matter concentrations as a mixing ratio, and their measurements are given in g m−3 . 4) where Na = 6 022 × 1023 mol−1 is the Avogadro constant, the factor 10−6 is to convert from the SI unit of m−3 to cm−3 and R is the gas constant 8 314 J mol−1 K−1 . e. mixing ratio air = 1), p = 105 Pa, T = 298 K, gives air = 2 43 × 1019 molecule cm−3 . 2 Selection criteria for instruments There are a number of selection criteria to consider when it comes to choosing the most suitable instrument for a given task.

The use of lasers as radiation sources is commonplace, their narrow spectral linewidths and wavelength tunabilty making them ideal for highly selective molecular excitation. 4. 8 discusses the use of satellites for global measurements of trace species, using remote sensing techniques based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy of scattered or transmitted sunlight, or the detection of radiation in the IR and far-infrared/microwave regions emitted by excited molecules. Field Measurements of Atmospheric Composition 17 Chapter 4 is restricted to the generation of fluorescence via direct optical excitation, rather than fluorescence (chemiluminescence) generated as a result of an electronically excited state being produced as the product of an exothermic chemical reaction or an inelastic collision involving energy transfer from another molecule.

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