By Robert D. Holtz, William D. Kovacs
A descriptive, easy creation to geotechnical engineering - with functions to civil engineering perform. *focuses at the engineering class, habit, and houses of soils worthy for the layout and building of foundations and earth buildings. *introduces vibratory and dynamic compaction, the tactic of fragments, the Schmertmann method for deciding on box compressibility, secondary compression, liquefaction, and an intensive use of the strain direction process.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering
Point-to-point transfer of power with local reactive power compensation using a shunt–shunt power converter (BTB-STATCOM). APPLICATIONS OF FACTS CONTROLLERS 7 shunt-connected VSC can also provide independent shunt reactive power compensation at its AC terminal and, thereby, regulates the voltage of the transmission line at the point of compensation. Each shunt-connected VSC is rated for the full line voltage and carries the full line current and, therefore, is rated for its full transmitted power.
B) Exchanged reactive power (Qexch) versus active power (Pexch). 40 POWER FLOW CONTROL CONCEPTS Solving the above quadratic equation results in 2 V 2s ' s 2 − 2 XQ V Xn ± (V2Xn − 2 XQexch ) − 4 X 2 (P2exch + Q2exch ) ( exch ) = 2 or ⎛ V2 ⎞ V 2s ' s = ⎜ Xn − XQexch ⎟ ± ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ V2 ⎜ Xn − XQ exch ⎜ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ − X 2 P2 + Q2 exch exch ⎟ ⎠ ( ) or ⎛ V2 ⎞ Vs ' s = + ⎜ Xn − XQexch ⎟ − ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ V2 ⎜ Xn − XQ exch ⎜ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎞ 2 ⎟ − X 2 P2 exch + Qexch ⎟ ⎠ ( ) (2-90) The relative phase angle (␤) of the compensating voltage (VsЈs) is derived from equation 2-88 as P β = tan −1 sn − tan −1 Qsn Pexch Qexch + V s2' s (2-91) X For the desired exchanged active and reactive powers (P*exch, Q*exch) within the allowable control range, the magnitude (VsЈs) and the relative phase angle (␤) of the compensating voltage (VsЈs) are calculated by substituting Pexch = P*exch and Qexch = Q*exch in equations 2-90 and 2-91, respectively.
A voltage-sourced converter (VSC)-based shunt–series and shunt–shunt power converters 2. An electric machine-based shunt–series and shunt–shunt power converters 3. 1 19 THEORY Ps , Q s Ps' , Q s' Vs's Pr , Q r VX I (a) Vs X Vs' P exch Q exch Vr Voltage Regulator Line I Phase Angle Regulator Line Vs's β Vr VX Vs Vs' ψ (b)) δ δr δs δ s' Figure 2-3. (a) Power transmission system with a series-connected compensating voltage (VsЈs). (b) Phasor diagram. , VsЈs Є␦s + ␤), as shown in Figure 2-3a. , Vs + VsЈs).