By R. S. Cahn M.A., Dr. Phil. nat., F.R.I.C. (auth.)
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Chemical Nomenclature
16-17 are to be noted: (a) Hydrocarbon radicals have the usual organic names ending in -yl (not -ylo). , are called methoxo-, etc. (c) CHa·S- is methanethiolato-. (d) When an organic compound which is not normally named as an acid forms a ligand by loss of a proton, it is treated as anionic and its name is given the ending -ato. ) (e) For computation of the oxidation number, 27 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE NO, NS, CO, and CS are treated as neutral; hydrocarbon radicals are counted as negative (to avoid unusual results).
The same alternatives exist for esters of polyhydric alcohols. When there is a choice, unsaturation (-ene, -yne) is denoted rather than hydrogenation (hydro-); for example, cyclohexadiene and not dihydrobenzene. B. This chapter has dealt with systematic nomenclature; it is not to be taken as excluding the many trivial names to be found in standard books; but it is wise, and good practice, to avoid the less common trivial names except for a purely specialist audience. 53 5 ORGANIC: NUMBERING The principles of numbering (enumeration) used for compounds and for radicals are the same, with one exception, namely: for compounds the lowest available numbers are assigned to the principal (functional) group or groups; for radicals they are assigned to the "free" valency or valencies, and the principal groups are then treated merely as ordinary prefixes.
The terms "function" and "functional group" entered English chemical nomenclature in IUPAC rules by translation from the 1930 French version (fonction, fonctionnel) without definition. A functional group is a group of atoms defining the "function" or mode of activity of a compound. An alcohol owes its alcoholic properties to the functional group -OH; here the functional group, hydroxyl, is the same as the chemical group of the same name. A ketone owes its ketonic properties to the oxygen atom which is doubly bound (to carbon); the ketonic function is 0=(0) (without the carbon), and this is not the same as the ketonic group 0 = c(.