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By Stephen Grossberg

Those books assemble fresh neural types of imaginative and prescient, speech and language reputation and keep in mind, cognitive self-organization, conditioning, reinforcement, motivation, consciousness, circadian rhythms, motor keep watch over, and likely psychological issues. as well as unifying and predicting interdisciplinary information from psychology, psychophysiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and anatomy, the paintings indicates new real-time circuit designs for desktop imaginative and prescient and speech units, self-organizing trend popularity machines, parallel processors, and adaptive robots.

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Androgen normally has the effect of motivating sexual behavior. At such loci, self-stimulation disappears almost completely after castration, which presumably eliminates the usual drive input to these loci. Similarly, higher current levels are needed to achieve self-stimulation as the androgen level subsides, indicating once again the energizing effect of drive inputs. This latter effect can be reversed by injections of testosterone propionate in oil. By contrast, if androgen is injected when the electrode is located at hunger-related sites, then the lever-pressing rate decreases.

To remove this asymmetry, a specific internal drive signal should also be necessary to fire the internal drive representation. If an external cue representation could fire without an external cue being present, we would say that a type of hallucinatory event had occurred. Letting drive representations fire in the absence of specific internal drive signals is like permitting drive hallucinations to occur. Introducing specific drive inputs eliminates this network asymmetry and begins to overcome the satiety problem.

The contingent negative variation (CNV) is a slowly varying cortical potential shift that is a likely neural substrate of incentive motivational signals. Walter (1964) hypothesized that the CNV shifts the average baseline of the cortex by depolarizing the apical dendritical potentials of cortical pyramidal cells and thereby priming the cortex for action. , 1966), and arousal (McAdam, 1969). The CNV has also been described as a conditionable wave. Thus far in the network theory, the incentive motivational pathway can be conditioned only indirectly when a cue acquires conditioned reinforcer properties that are reflected by that cue’s growing ability to elicit incentive motivational signals.

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