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By Jonathan R. Barton

The realms and peoples of South and important the US, Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, that jointly shape the political countryside of Latin the US, surround a variety of societies, politics and economies. this article exposes the diversities among locations, areas and nations, members and societies, providing a useful perception into the subjects of political and financial improvement, and offers a advisor to realizing strength and house family. From the Antarctic to the tropical jungles, the coastal groups to the highland villages, the mega-cities to remoted rural lifestyles, the political geographies of lives, localities, towns and rurality are too refined to be subjected to generalizations. Adopting a serious human geography standpoint, Jonathon Barton offers an realizing of similarities, distinction and complicated human geographies.

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An analysis of the geographical discipline within the Latin American continent reveals its emphasis on traditional human geographical concerns of urban spatial organisation and environmental considerations. Explaining the paradigm shifts within the continent and the impetus for these shifts requires an understanding of the background of the discipline. There can be little debate that Latin American geography is essentially a geography of European influence and of European immigrants rather than of the indigenous peoples.

Human geographical issues relating to social and economic themes followed during the twentieth century at various rates, swiftly in Brazil following the establishment of the influential National Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in the 1930s, gradually in the cases of Argentina, Chile and Venezuela, and more slowly in Paraguay and Bolivia, for example (Pinchas Geiger, 1970). In Central America, the US influence in cartography and planning delayed the development of geography. It was not until 1938 that the first Central American geography department was established, at the University of Panama (Minkel, 1970).

Arturo Escobar (1995) refers to the discourse of development as having power in itself, employing Michel Foucault’s understanding of power. He stresses the need to progress to a post-developmental era in which to re-examine the cultural contexts of poverty and reflect on the constructions of social power that lead to social injustice and inequalities. The constructions of development and social needs have been important in establishing relations of power between those considered as having the tools of development and those receiving the fruits of development.

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